The development of medical field in Islamic civilization

“Medical science is not born overnight,” said Dr. Ezzat Abouleish MD in his article entitled Contributions of Islam to Medicine. [1] The study of medicine is growing rapidly in the modern era is the culmination of the efforts of millions of people, whether known or not, since thousands of years ago. So important, medicine is always passed down from generation to generation and nation to nation. Forerunner of medical science has existed since time immemorial. A number of ancient civilizations, like Egypt, Greece, Rome, Persia, India, and China has begun to develop the fundamentals of medical science in a simple way.Here is the history of the development of medical field in Islamic civilization:

A. The Early
The development of Islamic medicine through three periods of ups and downs. The first period begins with the translation movement of the medical literature of Greek and other languages into Arabic, which took place in the 7th century AD until to-8. At this time, scholars from the Syrians and the Persians are brilliant and honest literature translated from Greek into Arabic language and the Syrians.
The first reference under the authority of the caliph educated medical Umayyad dynasty, which employed a specialist in the Hellenistic tradition. On the 8th century Umayyad dynasty, a family is told ordered the translation of medical texts and chemicals from Greek into Arabic. Various sources also indicate that the Umayyads caliphs, Umar ibn Abdul Aziz (p.717-20) ordered trlansation from Syriac into Arabic a seventh-century medical textbook written by the prince Ahrun Alexandria.
The development of medical literature has increased dramatically under the reign of Caliph Al-Ma’mun of the Abbasid in Baghdad Diansti. The doctors of the Nestorians of the city Gundishpur employed in this activity. A number of prominent Islamic scholars also took part in the process of knowledge transfer. Recorded a number of figures such as, Yuhanna Ibn Masawayah (d. 857), Ibn-Bakhtisliu Jurjis, and Hunain Ibn Ishak (808-873 AD) participated translating ancient literature and the doctor early.
The works written in the original Arabic by Hunayn. He wrote several treatises, including al-Tibb al-fi Masail lil-Mutaallimin (medical problems for students) and the Kitab al-Asyr Maqalat fi al-Ayn (the ten treatises on the eye). The work is highly innovative and influential, even though very few new observations presented. The most famous works in this early period composed by Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari (783-858), Firdaws al-Hikmah. By adopting a critical approach that allows readers to choose from a variety of practices, this work is the first comprehensive work of Arab medicine that integrates and includes a variety of medical traditions of that time.
Development of the tradition and the diversity that first appeared in Arab medicine, dikatan John can be traced to the Hellenistic legacy. Of India in the realm of medicine. India despite lack of scientific medical attention too, does not deny the existence of valuable resources and practices that can be learned. Greek scientific heritage become dominant, especially hellenistic, John Esposito says “the awareness of (the need) more than a tradition of pushing for a critical and selective approach”. As in the earlier Arab science.

2. Heyday
On the 9th century AD to the M-13, the medical world of Islam growing so rapidly. A number of hospital of the stand. In the heyday of Islam, the hospital not only serves as a place of care and treatment of patients, but also a place to gain knowledge of new doctors. No wonder, when research and development that has produced so vigorous a new medical science. The era of the triumph of the Islamic civilization has produced a number of prominent and influential doctors in the medical world, until now. `’Islam much to contribute to the development of medical science,” said Ezzat Abouleish.
The era of the triumph of Islam has spawned a number of prominent medical figures, such as Al-Razi, Al-Zahrawi, Ibn-Sina, Ibn Rushd, Ibn-al-Nafis and Ibn-Maimon. Al-Razi (841-926 AD) is known in the West by the name Razès. He became court physician Pangerang Abu Saleh Al-Mansur, ruler Khorosan. He then moved to Baghdad and became head physician at the hospital of Baghdad and the Caliph’s personal physician. The resulting medical book entitled “Al-Mansuri” (Liber Al-Mansofis) and “Al-Hawi”.
Other medical leaders of Al-Zahrawi (930-1013 AD) or known in the West Abulcasis. He was a leading surgeon in Arabic. Al-Zahrawi was educated at the University of Cordoba. He became court physician to the Caliph Abdel Rahman III. The majority of his life dedicated to writing books of medicine and surgery in particular.
One of the four medical books that he wrote titled, “Al-Tastif Ajiz’an Liman Al-Ta’lif ‘- encyclopedia of surgical science the best in the Middle Ages. The book was used in Europe until the 17th century. Al-Zahrawi applying cautery to control bleeding. He also used alcohol and wax to stop the bleeding from the skull during the dissected skull. Al-Zahrawi has also written a book about about the dental surgery.
Muslim doctor who is also very famous is Ibn Sina or Avicenna (980-1037 AD). One of the successful book of medicine written fenomela is Qanon fi Al-Tibb Al-or Canon of Medicine. The book became a sort of encyclopedia of health and medicine that contains one million words. Until the 17th century, it is still a reference book of medical schools in Europe.
Islam’s golden era of medicine figures are Ibn Rusdy or Averroes (1126-1198 AD). Doctors born Granada, Spain was much admired scholar in Europe. Contribution to the world of medicine contained in his work entitled ‘Al-Tibb Al-Kulliyat fi’ (Colliyet). The book contains summaries of medical science. Other medical book entitled ‘Al-Taisir’ peeling medical practices.
Name a famous Muslim physician Ibn El-Nafis is (1208 – 1288 AD). He was born in the early era of Islam meredupnya medical developments. Ibn El-Nafis had become the head of Al-Mansuri Hospital in Cairo. A number of medical books he wrote, that tekenal salahsatunya is ‘Mujaz Al-Qanun’. The book contains criticism and the addition of the book written by Ibn Sina. Some prominent Muslim doctor’s name is also developing medical science among others, Ibn Al-Lakhm Wafid, a prominent physician in Spain, Ibn Tufails physician who lived about AD 1100-1185, and Al-Ghafiqi, a physician who collected plants from Spain and Africa.
After the 13th century AD, developed medical science scholars of Islam experienced a period of stagnation. And then recede slowly decline, as the collapse of the era of the triumph of Islam in the Middle Ages. up here, I will not explain the fate of the decline of Islamic medicine. Because obviously experienced the death of Islamic Civilization. Therefore, in the next sub-chapter the authors will continue to browse through this vast Islamic civilization related to this field. Because a lot of the legacy of Islamic civilization in the fields of medicine, whether it be medical theories, institutions, and its system.



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